Let’s begin by briefly defining terms manager and the place where managers work. (the organization). Then let’s look at the manager’s job; specifically, what managers do?
Managers get things done through other people. They make decisions, allocate resources, and direct the activities of others to attain goal. Managers do their work in an organization. This is a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basic to achieve a common goal or set of goals. On the basis of this definitions manufacturing and service firms are organizations and so are schools, hospital, churches, military units, retail stores, police department, and local, state, and federal government agencies. the people who oversee the activities of others and who are responsible for attaining goals ion these organizations are managers (although they’re sometimes called administrators, especially in not for profit organizations.)
In the early part of the twentieth century,a French industrialist by the name of Henri Fayol wrote that all managers perform five management functions: they plan, organize, command, coordinate and control. Today, we have condensed those down to four: Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling.
Since organizations exist to achieve goals, someone has to define those goals and the means by which they can be achieved. management is that someone. The Planning function encompasses defining an organization’s goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals and developing a comprehensive hierarchy of plans integrate and coordinate activities.
manager’s also responsible for designing an organization’s structure. We call organizing function. It includes determination of what tasks are to be done, who is to do them , how tasks are to be grouped, wgo reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
Every organization contain people, and it is management’s job to direct and coordinate those people. this is the leading function. When managers motivate employees, direct the activities of others, select the most effective communication channels, or resolve conflicts among members, they are engaging in leading.
The final function to perform is controlling. to ensure that things are going as they should, management must monitor the organization’s performance. Actual performance must be compared with the previously set goals. If there are any significant deviations. It’s management’s job to get the organization back to track. This monitoring , comparing, and potential correcting is what is meant by the controlling function.
so, using the functional approach, the answer to the question, What managers do? is that they plan, organize, lead and control.